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International Migration and Segregation in the Brazilian Legal Amazonia

Migrations internationales et ségrégation dans l’Amazonie Légale Brésilienne
Alberto Augusto Eichman Jakob

Résumés

Cet article vise à présenter une évaluation de la migration internationale dans l’Amazonie Légale Brésilienne, une région encore peu explorée dans les articles scientifiques sur les études de la population, avec un accent particulier sur les migrants provenant des principaux pays d’origine la majorité de ces migrants, notamment le Pérou et la Bolivie. Selon les données du Recensement Démographique de 2010, parmi presque 30.000 immigrants étrangers dans l’Amazonie Légale cette année, 31% étaient originaires de ces deux pays. L’objectif du travail est d’analyser ces migrants, en comparant les informations : âge, niveau de formation et de revenu, sexe, emploi dans le pays d’accueil, les municipalités où ils vivent et l’endroit de résidence dans cette municipalité en termes de secteurs de recensement, par une approximation de ségrégation spatiale. Le lieu d’origine sera aussi pris en compte, avec les migrants qui sont arrivés directement de leur pays ou ceux qui ont passé par autre expérience migratoire au Brésil avant d’arriver dans la ville (migration interne), et la durée du séjour jusqu’à ce moment. Notre objectif est de mieux analyser la migration récente, surtout de ceux qui sont arrivés dans la période 2005-2010. Les données montrent que les caractéristiques des migrants sont très différentes pour ces variables selon leur origine. Nous avons utilisé les données du Recensement Démographique de 2010 et le Comptage de la population de 2007 pour l’analyse en cours.

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Introduction

1This paper aims to present a review of recent international migration into the Legal Brazilian Amazonia, specifically considering the situation evidenced by the 2010 Census and the Populational Count for 2007. These data, specifically those related to international migration in the Amazonia, became little discussed, which justifies a more detailed discussion of such information.

2Among the components of demographic dynamics, migration processes are the most difficult to capture and check. The definition of an area and of a specific time is crucial to characterize the types of migratory flows, as well as to identify the different stages of the migrating process. Regarding the case of international migration, the issue is even more complex because it involves issues such as populational undercount, due to the lack of information on the undocumented residents, and on their movements between countries, making it difficult to identify them.

3International migration went through a significant expansion over the last two decades of the twentieth century. In the case of migration between the South American countries, there is also an increasing trading trend involved, as noted by Celade (2002), Pellegrino (2003), Castillo (2003), and Pizarro (2008), among others. The slightly better economic situation of some countries, even with recurrent crisis cycles, over time causes a change on the main destinations. Brazil, for its territorial extension and economic potential, and Argentina are considered as important destinations. Considering the specific situation of the Amazonia, beyond the short-distance displacements in the areas of international border, it was noticeable the arrival of foreigners in various parts of the territory.

4This article explored some of the possibilities allowed by the 2010 Census and the 2007 Count in terms of the identification of migrants. It begins with an analysis of the international immigrant place of birth. With this approach it is possible to identify the lifelong migrants, which are those comprising the migratory stock in the region. In this case, the international migrant is defined as the person who was born in a foreign country.

5Followed by a discussion using the Census data for the production of a series of characterizations regarding the international immigrants living in the Legal Amazonia during 2010; subsequently, we present location maps of the foreign migrants in terms of census tracts of major destination cities in the Amazonia.

International migration and the legal Amazonia

6According to Pellegrino (2003), international migration is an essential aspect of the Latin America history. And it is possible to identify four major stages in the migration process during the five hundred years since the occupation by the European kingdoms. The first stage begins with the European conquest, and ends with the independence of the American nations; it is characterized by the incorporation of populations from the European metropolises, and the African populations brought in through the slavery system. The second stage starts with the Latin American countries, and especially the southern continent, receiving a large part of the European emigration wave from the half of the nineteenth and earlier twentieth century. The third phase occurred between 1930 and mid-1960, it was dominated by the internal movements of population towards the large cities; during this period, the international migration has acquired, in this context, a regional and borderer characteristic, serving as a complement to the internal migration. The fourth phase occurs in the last three decades of the twentieth century, when the migration balance of the Latin American countries has become negative, and emigration to the United States, and other developed countries has become the dominant fact of the regional migratory panorama.

7It could be said that the Amazonia had a reflection of these four historical stages, and in the most recent period, for which this work is restricted, the migratory exchanges with the neighboring countries have intensified.

8The delimitation of the area in reference to the migratory movement is a fundamental step. Accordingly, it was decided, for this paper, to adopt as spatial reference, the limits set by the Legal Amazonia, defined as the states comprising the North region, in addition to the states of Mato Grosso and Maranhão located west of the 44 Meridian [Rocha, 2005: 141]. However, this apparent clear definition involves very complex situations in social and environmental terms, subjected to frequent administrative and political pressure for its redefinition, as pointed out by Hogan, D'Antona and Carmo (2008).

Map 1. Location of the Brazilian Legal Amazonia in South America in 2010

Map 1. Location of the Brazilian Legal Amazonia in South America in 2010

Source; IBGE, shapefile of Brasil, 2010. ESRI, shapefile of World, 1992
Elaboration: Alberto Jakob.

9Map 1 shows the boundaries of the Legal Amazonia used in this work. Note that the state of Maranhão was included in its entirety, to facilitate comparability with the official divisions of the country, and in view of that the addition of municipalities east of the 44 Meridian does affect the analyses performed here.

10There are few studies dealing with the populational migration in the Amazon region. Most date from the early 1990s, which deals with studies conducted between 1970 and 1980. There is still a paucity of data from the demographic variables, which are little studied in the Amazonia [Aragón, 2005].

« Studies show that the migratory patterns of the region are characterized, in recent years, by the intra-regional migration, and by the concentration in the cities, but it differs from the processes in the Eastern and Western Amazonia, and the first (Pará mostly) maintains a more balanced spatial distribution of the population [Aragon, 2005: 19]. »

11From the 1970s, the Federation Units (FUs) of Pará, Mato Grosso and Rondônia were the ones receiving the bulk of the migrants in the Legal Amazonia, since there were in place public policies encouraging colonization and intensification of land use. More recently, new areas of populational attraction ("populating corridors") have emerged. Between 1991 and 2000, Amapá had the highest growth in the foreign population (108%), especially on the border with Guyana and Pará, as well as with the Amazon FU, with 77% growth. Also noteworthy is Roraima, especially on the border with Venezuela and along the BR-174 highway [Rocha, 2005].

12As for the internal migration, during the same the period, only six state capitals had an average annual populational growth of more than 3%, and 5 of them are part of the Amazon region, namely: Manaus, Macapá, Rio Branco, Boa Vista and Palmas, the latter due to the creation of Tocantins FU during that period [Rocha, 2005].

13In this context, the localities situated along the international border present a significant populational mobility, as well as a significant international migration between neighboring countries.

14Currently in this region, the international migration may become the most important demographic aspect with the globalization and rising unemployment rates, and their resulting problems, such as the illegal migration into the Amazon [Aragón, 2005].

The north has a migratory selectivity, with respect to the birthplace of international migrants, distinct from the rest of the country as a whole.

  • 1 This number of foreigners looks like small, but it represents the official number, and also those e (...)

15According to the census data, Brazil had 683,830 foreigners in 2000, accounting for only 0.4% of its population1. This figure dropped to 592,570 foreigners in 2010. This decrease of 91,000 is largely explained by losses in the Federation Units (FUs) of São Paulo (loss of 77,000) and Rio de Janeiro (loss of 36,000). But in other parts of the country there were gains in terms of the number of foreigners in the 2000-2010 period, and this being the case of the Legal Amazonia, with the addition of nearly 3,500 foreigners (Table 1). It is emphasized here the importance of the Amazon, which alone attracted 2879 more foreigners in 2010 than in 2000.

Table 1. Population and number of foreigners by region and FU. Brazil, 2000 and 2010

Região/FU of residence

2000

2010

Foreigners

Population

%

Foreigners

Population

%

Legal Amazonia

29 741

21 073 967

0,14

33 219

25 474 365

0,13

North

Rondônia

4 341

1 380 952

0,31

4 689

1 562 409

0,30

Acre

1 787

557 882

0,32

1 511

733 559

0,21

Amazonas

6 899

2 817 252

0,24

9 777

3 483 985

0,28

Roraima

2 618

324 397

0,81

2 721

450 479

0,60

Pará

5 814

6 195 965

0,09

5 291

7 581 051

0,07

Amapá

807

477 032

0,17

979

669 526

0,15

Tocantins

581

1 157 690

0,05

768

1 383 445

0,06

Northeast

Maranhão

1 414

5 657 552

0,02

1 547

6 574 789

0,02

Piauí

353

2 843 428

0,01

482

3 118 360

0,02

Ceará

3 631

7 431 597

0,05

5 916

8 452 381

0,07

Rio Grande do Norte

1 578

2 777 509

0,06

2 823

3 168 027

0,09

Paraíba

1 282

3 444 794

0,04

1 806

3 766 528

0,05

Pernambuco

5 332

7 929 154

0,07

5 949

8 796 448

0,07

Alagoas

875

2 827 856

0,03

1 078

3 120 494

0,03

Sergipe

480

1 784 829

0,03

580

2 068 017

0,03

Bahia

10 649

13 085 769

0,08

13 218

14 016 906

0,09

Southeast

Minas Gerais

21 022

17 905 134

0,12

24 667

19 597 330

0,13

Espírito Santo

3 752

3 097 498

0,12

5 411

3 514 952

0,15

Rio de Janeiro

133 101

14 392 106

0,92

96 821

15 989 929

0,61

São Paulo

343 944

37 035 456

0,93

266 782

41 262 199

0,65

South

Paraná

49 662

9 564 643

0,52

50 417

10 444 526

0,48

Santa Catarina

12 559

5 357 864

0,23

17 622

6 248 436

0,28

Rio Grande do Sul

38 998

10 187 842

0,38

34 244

10 693 929

0,32

Midwest

Mato Grosso do Sul

14 000

2 078 070

0,67

14 679

2 449 024

0,60

Mato Grosso

5 481

2 505 245

0,22

5 935

3 035 122

0,20

Goiás

5 911

5 004 197

0,12

8 278

6 003 788

0,14

Distrito Federal

6 961

2 051 146

0,34

8 577

2 570 160

0,33

Total

683 830

169 872 859

0,40

592 570

190 755 799

0,31

Volume

Pop2000

%

Volume

Pop2010

%

Norte

22 847

12 911 170

0,18

25 737

15 864 454

0,16

Nordeste

25 593

47 782 488

0,05

33 400

53 081 950

0,06

Sudeste

501 819

72 430 194

0,69

393 680

80 364 410

0,49

Sul

101 219

25 110 349

0,40

102 283

27 386 891

0,37

Centro-Oeste

32 352

11 638 658

0,28

37 469

14 058 094

0,27

Amazônia

29 741

21 073 967

0,14

33 219

25 474 365

0,13

Brasil

683 830

169 872 859

0,40

592 570

190 755 799

0,31

Source: IBGE, Census data from 2000 and 2010.

16Table 2 shows the accumulated 592,000 foreigners in the country, or lifetime migrants, according to country of birth, as well as those who arrived in the 2000-2010 period at the FU of residence in 2010, and during the 2005-2010, for the latest analysis.

Table 2. Foreign migrants according to country of origin and arrival time in Brazil

Table 2. Foreign migrants according to country of origin and arrival time in Brazil

Source: IBGE, Census data from 2010.

  • 2 Census data from 2010 show Russian migrants representing a very small group of foreigners in the co (...)

17It is noticed that the older migrants are represented by a further migration (Portuguese and Japanese migrants made up for almost one third of the foreigners), but gradually they were replaced by migrants from neighboring countries, such as Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and even the United States, which is a traditional receptor of Brazilian migrants2.

18Looking more specifically at the foreigners in the Brazilian Legal Amazonia, Table 3 shows those with the most recent arrivals, which will be discussed from now on.

Table 3. Foreign migrants in the FUs belonging to the Legal Amazonia in 2010, according to the country of residence in 2005

Table 3. Foreign migrants in the FUs belonging to the Legal Amazonia in 2010, according to the country of residence in 2005

Source: IBGE, Census data from 2010.

19According to the Census data, the Legal Amazonia had 29,741 foreigner residents in 2000. This figure increased to 33,218 foreigners in 2010. Of these, 7,101 arrived during the 2005-2010 period, directly from their countries of origin, and 5,054 others were already in Brazil in 2005, but in a different FU. However, 82% of these interstate foreign migrants moved within the Legal Amazonia. And only 18% came from outside the Amazonia in 2005-2010.

Table 3 shows that the recent migration of foreigners into the Amazonia presents a strong regional character. The top three have borders with the Brazilian Amazonia.

20The countries bordering the Amazonia maintained the importance of migration for that region, pointing to the possibility of an increased circularity of these migrants in the region. Take Peru as an example, this country sent a total of 5,102 migrants to the Amazonia, 3,093 of which came in the last 10 years (60.6%), with 2,297 coming directly from Peru (74%). Of those who came directly, 1,201 arrived during the 2005-2010 quinquennium (or 52% of the 2,297).

This table shows the concentration of foreigners in certain FUs of the Legal Amazonia, as Peruvians and Colombians in the Amazon, Bolivians in Mato Grosso and Rondônia, etc.

21Bolivia presents a different situation from Peru, while only 47% of Bolivians arrived in the Amazonia in the 2000s, 67% of these came directly to the place of residence in 2010, and 63% of those during the 2005-2010 period.

22Colombia and Paraguay are also good examples. While the majority of the Colombians arriving in the 2000s came directly from their country (87%), in the case of Paraguay, the figure was only 36% showing the importance of Mato Grosso do Sul as their initial destination.

23While 61% of the Colombians, who came directly from their country in the 2000s, arrived in the 2005-2010 period, this figure is true for only 43% for the Paraguayans. Indeed, while there was a growth of 74% in volume of Colombian migrants in 2005-2010 in relation to the five-year period of 1995-2000 (401-698 migrants), with respect to the Paraguayans they were reduced by 27% (from 347 to 253 migrants) in the same period.

  • 3 Data not shown here were obtained from other studies, such as Jakob (2010).

24However, the most striking element is the substantial increase of migrants originating from countries, such as the United States, Japan, and more recently from Portugal, especially. While during the 1995-2000 period, the Amazonia was reached by 240 Americans, 93 Japanese, and 44 Portuguese; the 2005-2010 period saw these numbers increased to 559, 356 and 348, respectively, which corresponds to an increase of 133% of migrants from the United States, 284% from Japan, and 700% for those coming from Portugal between the periods covered3.

25A good topic of study would be the analysis of this very important growth of migration of foreigners from countries regarded as traditional Brazilian receivers, and now beginning to send migrants to Brazil, especially to the Legal Amazonia. Although the numbers are still low in comparison with other countries, it is important to denote that when the number of international migrants dropped in Brazil, in the Amazon rose, especially from these three countries. It is interesting to look for the reasons of this attraction. Would be the effects of the World economic crises of 2000s? Or not? And why the Amazon?

26For a better idea of these major international migration flows bound for the Amazonia and the RM of São Paulo; migrants natural from Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Paraguay were selected for further details of their main features as follows.

Characterization of migrants from the main countries of origin

27The objective is to detail the main characteristics of migrants originating in foreign countries sending the highest volume of emigrants to the Amazonia, highlighting Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia. It will address characteristics such as gender, age, education and income levels, and the municipalities of destination.

Table 4. Amazonian destination municipalities in 2010 according the migrants main countries of origin

Table 4. Amazonian destination municipalities in 2010 according the migrants main countries of origin

Source: IBGE, Census data from 2010.

Maps 2 and 3 show the geographic location of the municipalities, which received migrants from Peru and Bolivia during 2005-2010.

28

Map 2. Migrants from Peru bound to the Legal Amazonia region in 2005-2010

Map 2. Migrants from Peru bound to the Legal Amazonia region in 2005-2010

Source : IBGE, Brazilian demographic Census of 2010.
Elaboration: Alberto Jakob.

29Map 2 shows the two axes of displacement of migrants originating in Peru: one directed to the Manaus municipality, capital of the Amazonas FU, and another bound for the border between Amazonas and Rondônia, passing through other municipalities from the Acre FU, which are closer to the border. Aside from Tabatinga, Benjamin Constant, and Manaus, which concentrate 59.3% of the migration during 2005-2010 (Table 4), several other municipalities, were affected by the Peruvian migration; thus, showing some diversification regarding the destinations. It can be said that they are two different sets of movements. The movements performed in the border areas, mainly in the states of Acre, Amazonas and Rondônia, and the mobility toward larger urban centers, such as Manaus.

30With respect to the migrants from Bolivia, during the same five years period, Map 3 clearly demonstrates the degree of concentration in these municipalities near the border; in Rondônia, Acre, and Mato Grosso. The only municipality outside these three states, which received significant Bolivian migration, was Manaus (11% of Bolivian migrants into the Amazonia). These data show that Manaus is becoming increasingly important in Amazon.

Map 3. Migrants from Bolivia bound to the Legal Amazonia region in 2005-2010

Map 3. Migrants from Bolivia bound to the Legal Amazonia region in 2005-2010

Source : IBGE, Brazilian demographic Census of 2010.
Elaboration: Alberto Jakob.

Map 4. Migrants from Colombia bound to the Legal Amazonia region in 2005-2010

Map 4. Migrants from Colombia bound to the Legal Amazonia region in 2005-2010

Source : IBGE, Brazilian demographic Census of 2010.
Elaboration: Alberto Jakob.

31The Map 4 shows the migrants originated in Colombia in 2005-2010. The municipalities of Tabatinga, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, and Manaus located in the Amazonas FU, attracted the majority of migrants from Colombian origins; Tabatinga with 395 (56.6%), São Gabriel with 101 (14.5%), and Manaus with 65 (9.3%), according to Table 7. The remaining municipalities showed little expression.

  • 4 In 2007 the vast majority of international migrants was residing in urban census tracts; 90% in Tab (...)

32In order to further refine the place of residence of the foreign migrants, their destination cities divided by country of origin were selected from Table 4, and individual maps were constructed with their spatial distribution in terms of the urban census tracts4.

33Figures 1 and 2, shows the location of international migrants from the two main destination municipalities, in terms of their census tracts. The maps on the right side of the figures, the urban census tracts from these municipalities are highlighted in yellow and with a blue circle; on the left is an enlarged view of these urban sectors, and the number of migrants in each sector.

Figure 1. Spatial distribution of foreign migrants in urban census tracts of Tabatinga (AM) in 2007

Figure 1. Spatial distribution of foreign migrants in urban census tracts of Tabatinga (AM) in 2007

Source: Population enumeration of 2007. Aggregation of census tracts
Elaboration: Alberto Jakob.

Figure 2. Spatial distribution of foreign migrants in urban census tracts of Cáceres (MT) in 2007

Figure 2. Spatial distribution of foreign migrants in urban census tracts of Cáceres (MT) in 2007

Source: Population enumeration of 2007. Aggregation of census tracts
Elaboration: Alberto Jakob.

34It is noticed that the urban sectors represent a very small area of the municipality, and even within the urban area, the migrants tend to concentrate in some sectors. That is, they are highly concentrated in small areas of the municipalities.

35Dealing more specifically with the characteristics of migrants, as their volume during the 2005-2010 period, is relatively low in relation to the main countries of origin, especially in the Amazonia; of 1,202 Peruvians, 1,072 Bolivians, and 698 Colombians, it is impossible to perform many breakdowns of the migrants with respect to gender, age, education and income levels of the target municipalities. Thus, the analysis below will be made with respect to the total of these migrants without considering differences between the municipalities of destination.

Age of the International Migrants

36The analyses with respect to the ages of the migrants are based on Table 5, which brings the average and median ages, and the male participation among the migrants from the four main countries of origin for the 1995-2000 and 2005-2010 periods.

Table 5. Average age, median age and male participation of migrants in the Amazon according to countries of origin for the periods 1995-2000 and 2005-2010

1995-2000

Age

Peru

Bolivia

Colombia

Average (years)

29,5

24,1

26,8

Median (years)

27,0

21,0

28,0

% Male

52,2

49,0

51,6

2005-2010

Age

Peru

Bolivia

Colombia

Average (years)

29,1

25,0

29,6

Median (years)

26,0

23,0

27,0

% Male

62,7

54,1

57,5

Source: IBGE, Census data from 2000 and 2010.

37Table 5 shows that on average, the younger migrants are from Bolivia, and the older ones are from Peru, and Colombia. The median age has not distanced itself from the average, indicating a low variability of the data.

38In terms of the gender composition of the migratory groups; Table 5 shows a slightly higher number of males among the recent waves of migrants into the Amazonia (63% of Peruvian, 58% of Colombians, and 54% of Bolivians). Comparing the two periods, there was an increase in the average age for the Bolivians, and Colombians, as well as increased in the male gender of the migration from these countries into the Amazonia.

39As previously discussed, a comparison according to the migrants composition by sex and age is ill-advised, since there are less than 50 observations (individuals) in each of the various categories to be analyzed. Therefore, it was thought it best not to comment on the age groups.

Education Levels of the International Migrants

  • 5 As the data on schooling are not comparable with the 2000 Census, I decided not to include the data (...)

40The schooling of the international immigrants during the 2005-2010 bound to the Amazonia municipalities was evaluated in terms of the level of education of those older than 14. Table 6 shows the share of migrants in each category, as well as the absolute total of cases for each country of origin5.

41Table 6 shows that, for the Amazonia, the migrants from Peru were those better educated, with 53% being either graduates or with unfinished college, and 29% had incomplete elementary education. As for the Colombians the profile is the opposite. There are 41% with complete or incomplete higher education, and 42% with incomplete elementary. The Bolivians are more evenly distributed in terms of education levels.

Table 6. Percentage of migrants bound for the Legal Amazonia, during the 2005-2010 period, older than 14, from the main countries of origin, according to levels of education.

Education level

Peru

Bolivia

Colombia

No education and incomplete elementary

29,1

30,6

41,6

Complete elementary and incomplete high school

18,0

20,4

17,5

Complete high school and incomplete college

35,7

27,4

30,3

College graduate

17,1

21,6

10,6

Total

1 108

819

572

Source: IBGE, Census data from 2010

Income Levels of the International Migrants

42The monthly income of international migrants from the five-year periods of 1995-2000 and 2005-2010 in the Amazonia; this topic is analyzed in terms of percentage of migrants in income categories of monthly minimum wages, as well as the average, and median income of migrants from Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia . Table 7 shows this information.

Table 7. Percentage of migrants bound for the Legal Amazonia, during the periods of 1995-2000 and 2005-2010, heads of households from the main countries of origin, according to monthly income, average and median incomes in monthly minimum wages (MW).

1995-2000

 

 

 

Income (MW)

Peru

Bolivia

Colombia

No income

15,4

17,0

8,1

+0 to 2

31,0

55,5

42,7

+2 to 5

9,5

16,4

28,8

+5 to 10

14,4

7,5

4,5

+10 to 20

4,1

.

7,1

+20

25,6

3,6

8,9

Total

258

247

131

Average (MW)

9,7

3,1

8,6

Median (MW)

2,7

1,3

2,0

2005-2010

Income (MW)

Peru

Bolivia

Colombia

No income

34,3

34,2

45,6

+0 to 2

65,7

43,7

54,4

+2 to 5

.

7,3

.

+5 to 10

.

7,6

.

+10 to 20

.

7,2

.

+20

.

.

.

Total

302

273

216

Average (MW)

0,7

4,0

0,9

Median (MW)

0,6

1,4

0,3

Source: IBGE, Census data from 2000 and 2010.

43Table 7 shows migratory selectivity with respect to the income of recent migrants from Peru and Colombia into the Amazonia in the late 2000s. All reported receiving up to 2 minimum wages, and a significant proportion of them had no monthly income. These figures are confirmed by the averages and median of these, always less than 1 minimum wage. Only the Bolivians had a slightly better distribution, raising the average to 4 monthly wages, while the median is 1.4 showing that a few were paid a little more.

Compared to the previous period, a sharp worsening of the income levels occurred for the foreign heads of households, particularly for the Peruvians, and Colombians.

44It is clear, with Table 8, that the profile of the economically active heads of households from these selected countries is also very different in terms of the occupation status for this destination region. The majority of the recent Peruvians were employed without a formal contract in 2010 (60%), the same was true for the Bolivians (42%). And most Colombians were self-employed (64%). A large segment of the migrants also had unpaid work, and about 22% of the Peruvians were employed as civil servants.

Table 8. Percentage of migrants bound for the Legal Amazonia during the periods 1995-2000 and 2005-2010, head of households economically active from the main countries of origin, according to employment status.

1995-2000

Position in the Occupation

Peru

Bolivia

Colombia

Did not work during the reference week

5,4

.

.

Domestic worker undocumented

.

14,2

10,2

Documented employee

10,2

.

30,8

Undocumented employee

51,5

57,3

43,7

Employer

.

5,1

.

Self employed

33,0

23,4

15,3

Total

230

196

101

2005-2010

Posição na ocupação

Peru

Bolivia

Colombia

Unpaid work (farming, livestock, fishing)

10,0

4,4

9,0

Documented employee

7,7

27,0

7,5

Public servant

22,3

.

.

Undocumented employee

60,0

42,5

19,1

Self-employed

.

26,0

64,4

Total

221

179

106

Source: IBGE, Census data from 2000 and 2010.

45Comparing the periods, it seems that there was an improvement in terms of position in the occupation for migrants from these three countries, since there was a decline in employment without a formal contract, which indicates a greater insertion in the formal labor market, even with a lower income.

46It is noteworthy the difficulty in making further conclusions about the occupation of these migrants, since in some categories were checked less than 20 cases, even with the expansion of the sample. Therefore, it was not possible to provide a greater detail under penalty of adding a very big error to analyses.

Final considerations

47It should be noted at the outset that the relatively small volumes of international contingents of immigrants presented in the work may be caused by some factors:

  • Problems related to the census data collection;

  • The possibility of non-identification of the immigrants, because they are in the country as undocumented; and

  • there are a huge contingent of people crossing the Brazilian borders daily, and they are not enumerated, because there is no need to of official papers, the borders are totally free of control. Many of them are just to cross a street or bridge, and in other ones, they just need to cross the river with a small boat. The Brazilian Federal Police only check goods bought in the border of Brazil-Venezuela in Roraima and Brazil-Peru in Acre. In the other areas, is difficult to see the presence of the police.

48When one considers the stock of immigrants, there is a tendency, in the most recent period, for a predominance of the arrival of immigrants from South America, while in previous decades the arrival of European immigrants was more prevalent. With the global economic crisis around 2010, it looks like that a possible reversal of this trend have occurred, with the country attracting more foreign migrants from traditional host countries for Brazil, such as Portugal, Japan, and the United States. By now, it is difficult to affirm that due to the small numbers, but it could be certified by the next demographic census (in 2020). Even with these numbers, we can have the idea of some tendencies.

49Census data allows the identification of three different situations in terms of entry of international immigrants into the Legal Amazonian states in recent years. A first movement happens in the areas of international border, where the movement of people is governed by a specific set of rules. This is especially true of the Bolivians, and to a lesser extent of the Peruvians, and Colombians.

50A second movement is characterized by immigrants searching for the larger urban centers, such as the state capitals, and some regional centers. This is more evident with the Peruvians, and Colombians.

51The third movement is characterized by the pursuit of border areas, which still existed in the Legal Amazonia during the 2000s.

52The paper also presents a set of characteristics of international migrants residing in the Legal Amazonia. Here are some of the key aspects. The first concerns the age composition of the groups. It is observed that Paraguayans and Bolivians immigrants are in average four years younger than the rest, and the Colombians presenting only one third of men in their recent flow.

53In terms of income in the Amazonia, in 2010, the Bolivians were the only ones with income higher than 2 minimum wages.

54Regarding occupation, the Colombians in the Amazonia had the lowest education and income levels; however, 64% of the heads of households were self-employed, probably belonging to the informal labor market.

55The Peruvians declared the lowest levels of income and education, and the Bolivians were listed as the youngest, which shows a different profile in terms of both the countries of origin and the destinations.

56The international immigration into the Amazonia has been historically very significant. The recent period shows important changes in terms of the origin of immigrants. Improvement in transportations and communications may become important in the resurgence of populational mobility between the neighboring countries. By the very extension of the international borders of the Legal Amazonia, this process will surely present significant ramifications for the region. A possible Population Count in 2015 could serve to help further elucidate this migration process in the 2010s.

57More recently, the presence of Haitians in Brazil, which is growing since the huge earthquake in Haiti in 2010, has started a debate about visas, their insertion in the labor market and also problems regarding racism, xenophobia and how to manage the migratory flows. In 2010-2013, more than 30 thousand Haitians entered in Brazil, mainly through the border cities of Tabatinga (Amazonas) and Brasileia (Acre).

Anyway, the analyses presented here provide interesting evidence of recent migration movements of foreign citizens in the areas addressed by the study.

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Bibliographie

ARAGÓN L.E. (2005), Até onde vai a Amazônia e qual é a sua população?, in L.E. Aragón (org.), Populações da Pan-Amazônia. Belém, UNESCO.

CASTILLO M. Á. (2003), Migraciones en el hemisferio: consecuencias y relación con las políticas socials, Población y Desarrollo, vol. 37,( mayo).

CELADE (2002), La migración internacional y el desarrollo en las América, Santiago de Chile, CEPAL-CELADE, 541 p.

HOGAN D.J., D´ANTONA A.O., CARMO R.L. (2008), Dinâmica demográfica recente da Amazônia, in M. Batistella, E.F. Moran, D.S. Alves (org.), Amazônia: natureza e sociedade em transformação. São Paulo, EDUSP.

PELLEGRINO A. (2003), La migración internacional en América Latina y el Caribe: tendencias y perfiles de los migrantes, Población y Desarrollo, vol. 41, n° 35.

PIZARRO J.M., VILLA M. (2002), Tendencias y patrones de la migración international en América latina y el Caribe, in Simposio sobre migraciones internacionales en las Américas, 2000, San José de Costa Rica, Anais… Santiago de Chile, CEPAL/CELADE.

ROCHA G.M. (2005), Aspectos recentes do crescimento e distribuição da população da Amazônia Brasileira, in L.E. Aragón (org.). Populações da Pan-Amazônia. Belém, UNESCO.

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Notes

1 This number of foreigners looks like small, but it represents the official number, and also those enumerated by the census. We know that the real number is pretty much higher, due to the undocumented people. But the “documented” people give us some idea of the profile of the international immigration.

2 Census data from 2010 show Russian migrants representing a very small group of foreigners in the country. Of the 1,387 Russians, 560 had spent less than 10 years at FU, and only 280 arrived in the country during the 2005-2010 periods, according to the expanded census sample.

3 Data not shown here were obtained from other studies, such as Jakob (2010).

4 In 2007 the vast majority of international migrants was residing in urban census tracts; 90% in Tabatinga (AM), 91% in Cáceres (MT), and 100% in Manaus (AM).

5 As the data on schooling are not comparable with the 2000 Census, I decided not to include the data related to the 1995-2000 five-year period.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Map 1. Location of the Brazilian Legal Amazonia in South America in 2010
Crédits Source; IBGE, shapefile of Brasil, 2010. ESRI, shapefile of World, 1992Elaboration: Alberto Jakob.
URL http://eps.revues.org/docannexe/image/5806/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,7M
Titre Table 2. Foreign migrants according to country of origin and arrival time in Brazil
Crédits Source: IBGE, Census data from 2010.
URL http://eps.revues.org/docannexe/image/5806/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 260k
Titre Table 3. Foreign migrants in the FUs belonging to the Legal Amazonia in 2010, according to the country of residence in 2005
Crédits Source: IBGE, Census data from 2010.
URL http://eps.revues.org/docannexe/image/5806/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Table 4. Amazonian destination municipalities in 2010 according the migrants main countries of origin
Crédits Source: IBGE, Census data from 2010.
URL http://eps.revues.org/docannexe/image/5806/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 256k
Titre Map 2. Migrants from Peru bound to the Legal Amazonia region in 2005-2010
Crédits Source : IBGE, Brazilian demographic Census of 2010.Elaboration: Alberto Jakob.
URL http://eps.revues.org/docannexe/image/5806/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 344k
Titre Map 3. Migrants from Bolivia bound to the Legal Amazonia region in 2005-2010
Crédits Source : IBGE, Brazilian demographic Census of 2010.Elaboration: Alberto Jakob.
URL http://eps.revues.org/docannexe/image/5806/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 360k
Titre Map 4. Migrants from Colombia bound to the Legal Amazonia region in 2005-2010
Crédits Source : IBGE, Brazilian demographic Census of 2010.Elaboration: Alberto Jakob.
URL http://eps.revues.org/docannexe/image/5806/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 360k
Titre Figure 1. Spatial distribution of foreign migrants in urban census tracts of Tabatinga (AM) in 2007
Crédits Source: Population enumeration of 2007. Aggregation of census tractsElaboration: Alberto Jakob.
URL http://eps.revues.org/docannexe/image/5806/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 288k
Titre Figure 2. Spatial distribution of foreign migrants in urban census tracts of Cáceres (MT) in 2007
Crédits Source: Population enumeration of 2007. Aggregation of census tractsElaboration: Alberto Jakob.
URL http://eps.revues.org/docannexe/image/5806/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 276k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Alberto Augusto Eichman Jakob, « International Migration and Segregation in the Brazilian Legal Amazonia », Espace populations sociétés [En ligne], 2014/2-3 | 2015, mis en ligne le 01 décembre 2014, consulté le 23 octobre 2017. URL : http://eps.revues.org/5806 ; DOI : 10.4000/eps.5806

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Auteur

Alberto Augusto Eichman Jakob

Núcleo de estudos de população/Unicamp
Population studies Center/University of Campinas
alberto@nepo.unicamp.br

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Droits d’auteur

Licence Creative Commons
Espace Populations Sociétés est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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