Comptes rendus d’articles
Edward Aboufadel, David Austin : A New Method for Computing the Mean Center of Population of the United States, The Professional Geographer, 2006 (February), vol. 58, n° 1, pp. 65-69
1The mean center of population of the United States is a convenient location used to summarize the population distribution of the United States and how it changes over time. As computed by the U.S. Census Bureau, the center depends on an arbitrary choice of a map projection. The authors feel that this location should depend only on the population distribution and not on any choices made in representing the data of the distribution. This note discusses a method for computing this location that does not depend on any choices made and describes how the results of this method differ from those of the Census Bureau.
Louise Ackers : Moving People and Knowledge: Scientific Mobility in the European Union, International Migration, 2005, vol. 43, n° 5, pp. 99-131
2This paper considers the relationship between highly skilled scientific migration (HSM) and the transfer of knowledge within the European Union (EU). To understand these processes the author needs to conceptualize the phenomenon and then develops appropriate operational tools. HSM engages two key concepts: (1) the concept of skill or knowledge; and (2) the concept of migration. Analysing the impact of HSM requires an understanding of who is moving (and the quality of their skills) and the nature of their migration. This might include consideration of the direction of flows; their frequency, duration and permanency; and the propensity to return. In order to evaluate the impact of these processes on the regions concerned and develop appropriate policy responses, the author needs to examine the relationship between scientific mobility and the transfer of knowledge. Much existing literature focuses on the size and direction of migratory flows – assuming a clear correlation between human mobility and the transfer of knowledge – to identify the “winning” and “losing” regions. More recent work emphasizing “circulation” questions these assumptions and suggests that flows may not be unidirectional, homogenous or permanent and may be mitigated by certain “compensatory” mechanisms. This article considers some of the issues raised in the literature and the ways in which the variables identified may interact to shape these relationships with important implications for sending and receiving countries and individual scientists.
3This article does not endeavour to present new conclusions. Drawing on a pilot project concerned with the mobility of Italian scientists, it begins to map out a research agenda capable of informing a new study of scientific migration in the context of EU enlargement that may potentially inform other research in this field.
Mulki Al-Sharmani : Living Transnationally: Somali Diasporic Women in Cairo, International Migration, 2006, vol. 44, n° 1, pp. 55-77
4Since the Somali Civil War in 1991, there have been a large number of Somalis living in the Middle East, Europe, North America, and Australia. An increasing number of these Somalis are living in transnational households where family members live and sometimes move back and forth in different nation-states, yet these families maintain strong ties, share resources, and make decisions collectively about the well-being of different members. In the paper, the author argues that women play central roles in establishing and managing these transnational households. He examines these roles and their significance through an analysis of the activities and experiences of two groups of Somali women in Cairo within the domains of their transnational families and communities. These groups of women are: (1) refugees who have been granted or are seeking asylum from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) office in Egypt, and (2) naturalized citizens of Western countries who have relocated to Egypt, and whom the author will refer to as émigrés. He argues that many of these women become active members of transnational households and communities to (1) resist legal, economic and/or cultural “othering” of host societies, and (2) renegotiate past and present identity discourses that marginalize these individuals on multiple levels that are determined by clan affiliations, socio-economic conditions, and gender inequalities. By using complex transnational strategies, these women are engaging in new forms of activism to establish lives with more security, better future opportunities, and more dignity for their families and themselves. Yet their transnational family and community lives have benefits and challenges, which the women experience differently because of their varied diasporic histories and their uneven access to legal and social capital.
Stefano Allievi : How the Immigrants has Become Muslim. Public Debates on Islam in Europe, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2005, vol. 21, n° 2, pp. 135-163
5Parmi les figures de l’altérité que la sociologie a conceptualisées, on a pu voir le passage de la minorité interne à l’étranger, puis à l’immigré, qui a été longtemps l’idéal-type de « l’Autre ». Ces dernières années, il semble remplacé par le musulman. De nombreuses raisons expliquent ce passage. Les unes sont liées à la conjoncture, qu’il s’agisse des transformations de l’immigration en Europe ou de l’émergence de l’Islam comme acteur global. D’autres renvoient à des évolutions à long terme comme l’utilisation croissante des catégories interprétatives fondées sur la religion dans le débat public européen, l’Islam représentant le cas extrême de cette utilisation. Cette position de l’Islam semble fondée d’une part sur la méconnaissance de ses spécificités religieuses, et de l’autre sur l’utilisation de la religion comme une explication évidente, même lorsque des raisons non religieuses sont à l’origine de certains phénomènes. La recherche, tout comme le débat politique, religieux, et surtout médiatique sur l’Islam semble donc osciller entre l’essentialisme et le réductionnisme.
6Le paradoxe de cette situation est, qu’alors que le processus d’intégration des musulmans dans la société européenne est en cours, la perception des musulmans comme de l’Islam devient de plus en plus conflictuelle. En témoignent les oppositions à la présence des symboles islamiques en Europe (hijab, mosquées, etc.) et les débats intellectuels et médiatiques autour de certains ouvrages.
Tito Boeri : Population Changes, International Competitiveness and Growth, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 185-191
7Growth is more important than competitiveness per se. Ageing may reduce the growth potential of nations. But reforming pension and labour market institutions in order to better exploit returns from experience, it is possible to counteract the effects of a declining workforce on growth and to sustain a relatively high rate of capital accumulation. Migration cannot be a substitute for unreformed pension systems. Even if migration is in jobs paying social security contributions, financing pension systems via migration is equivalent to issuing public debt to foreigners. Yet migration can support growth, by “greasing the wheels” of labour markets with an ageing and less and less mobile workforce. Moral persuasion may not work with politicians having a short horizon. Yet, demographers and economists can help out in devising ways to inform citizens. And political obstacles to reforms of pension systems also come from ignorance of the actual costs of the status quo.
Didier Breton, France Prioux : Deux ou trois enfants ? Influence de la politique familiale et de quelques facteurs sociodémographiques, Population, 2005 (juillet-août), vol. 60, n° 4, pp. 489-522
8La politique familiale française a toujours apporté un soutien particulier aux familles ayant au moins trois enfants, et tout particulièrement dans les années 1978-1982. Les auteurs s’interrogent sur l’efficacité de cette politique, en comparant le niveau de la fécondité de rang 3 ou plus en France et en Europe occidentale et en observant l’évolution de la proportion de mères de deux enfants ayant eu un troisième enfant (probabilité d’agrandissement A2) depuis les années 1970. Il apparaît ainsi que cette politique ciblée sur le troisième enfant a eu une influence sur la fréquence de ces naissances, mais que cet effet est faible et difficile à quantifier. L’article s’intéresse ensuite aux caractéristiques associées à la probabilité d’agrandissement A2. Ce sont l’âge à la deuxième naissance, la durée de l’intervalle entre la première et la deuxième naissance et la nationalité qui déterminent le plus fortement cette probabilité. Toutes les autres variables examinées (le sexe des deux premiers enfants, la taille de la fratrie d’origine, l’histoire conjugale, la trajectoire professionnelle des mères, le niveau du diplôme et le groupe socioprofessionnel de chacun des conjoints) sont significatives, même après contrôle des effets de structure. Les tendances récentes, et en particulier l’élévation de l’âge à la deuxième naissance, impliquent une reprise de la baisse de la probabilité d’agrandissement des familles de deux enfants.
Anne Case, Christina Paxson : Sex Differences in Morbidity and Mortality, Demography, 2005 (May), vol. 42, n° 2, pp. 189-214
9Women have worse self-rated health and more hospitalization episodes than men from early adolescence to late middle age, but are less likely to die at each age. The authors use 14 years of data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey to examine this paradox. Their results indicate that the difference in self-assessed health between women and men can be entirely explained by differences in the distribution of the chronic conditions they face. This is not true, however, for hospital episodes and mortality. Men with several smoking-related conditions – including cardiovascular disease and certain lung disorders – are more likely to experience hospital episodes and to die than women who suffer from the same chronic conditions, implying that men may experience more-severe forms of distribution of chronic conditions, an equally large share can be attributed to the larger adverse effects of these conditions on male mortality. The greater effects of smoking-related conditions on men’s health may be due to their higher rates of smoking throughout their lives.
Chloé Cattelain, Marylène Lieber, Claire Saillard, Sébastien Ngugen : Les déclassés du Nord. Une nouvelle migration chinoise en France, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2005, vol. 21, n° 3, pp. 27-52
10Depuis la fin des années quatre-vingt-dix, on observe un nouveau flux migratoire de Chine du Nord différent des flux traditionnels en provenance de Chine du Sud et d’Asie du Sud-Est. Cet article présente un premier état des lieux de ces nouveaux migrants en Île-de-France, en rendant compte notamment des profils de ces migrants et de ces migrantes (de plus en plus nombreuses) des moyens qu’ils mettent en œuvre pour arriver en France et de la façon dont, une fois installés, ils s’organisent. Les relations qu’établissent les migrants avec des membres des diverses communautés chinoises participent, pour ces nouveaux arrivants, de l’exacerbation du sentiment d’un déclassement déjà entamé en Chine avec les réformes chinoises dès 1979. S’ils profitent des réseaux tissés par des vagues migratoires chinoises plus anciennes, que ce soit pour se loger ou trouver du travail, le fonctionnement de ces réseaux relève davantage de formes d’exploitation que de formes de solidarité. Cette situation de dépendance des Chinois du Nord à l’égard de ceux du Sud bouleverse leur a priori selon lequel les gens du Sud leur sont inférieurs parce que moins éduqués.
Oliveiro Casacchia, Alessio Cangiano, Cinzia Conti, Mariachiara di Cesare, Raffaella Iacoucci, Paola Vittori : Population Prospects and Problems of Italian Regions, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 495-538
11The paper is focused on the dynamics of the Italian population during the last fifty years, with reference to the future evolution of the demographic components in the twenty Italian Regions. Some light is shed on the process of convergence / divergence of regional demographic behaviours and the resulting age structures. In Nineteenth Century some scholars spoke about a process of progressive convergence towards a regional demographic homogeneity; afterwards, the unequal process of socio-economic development gave rise to a period of intense differentiation. Currently, different paces in the ageing process and more advanced phases of the fertility transition (the so-called Second Demographic Transition) in some Regions seem to determine a further strong push towards territorial homogeneity, so triggering a new phase of demographic convergence.
Joseph Chamie : Scenarios for the Development of World Population, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 69-89
12While the future remains uncertain, a number of scenarios of world population appear likely by mid-century. At least 2 billion and perhaps closer to 3 billion more people will probably be added to the world over the next five decades. Nearly all of the world’s future population growth is projected to be taking place in the urban areas of the less developed regions. Population ageing will become more critical, and international migration is also expected to remain high during the 21st century. The decisions and actions taken today will affect not only human well-being, but also the quality of life on the planet in the coming decades and beyond.
Paul P. Cheshire, Stefano Magrini : Population Growth in European Cities: Weather Matters – But only Nationally, Regional Studies, 2006 (February), vol. 40, n° 1, pp. 23-37
13This paper investigates differences in the rate of growth of population across the large city-regions of the European Union (UE) – 12 between 1980 and 2000. The US model, which assumes perfect factor mobility, does not seen well adapted to European conditions. There is evidence strongly suggesting that equilibrating migration flows between cities in different countries are highly constrained in the EU. However, quality-of-life motives do seem to be a significant and important feature of differential population growth rates if measured relative to national rather than the EU-12 values. Once other factors are allowed for, a systematic and highly significant factor determining rates of urban population growth is climatic variation. Cities which better weather than that of their countries have systematically tended to gain population over the past 20 years once other factors – including natural rates of increase in the areas of each country outside the major cities - are allowed for: there is no such effect for climate variables if expressed relative to the value of the EU-12 as a whole. On the other hand, there is evidence that the systematic spatial gains from European integration are reflected in a city’s population growth, as are systematic differences in their economic inheritance and the degree to which their economies interact with those of neighbouring cities. The results are tested for spatial dependence and remain robust.
David A. Coleman : Population Prospects and Problems in Europe, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 413-464
14At the end beginning of the 21st century, demographic patterns in Europe, and the problems and opportunities that they present, continue to be highly diverse, making it difficult to speak about “Europe” as a single entity. Some trends continue from the past: continuing demographic marginalisation on the world scene, persistent low fertility, continued transition to new forms of living arrangements, generally improving levels of survival (except in Eastern Europe), net immigration rising to about 1 million per year. Demographic divergence predominates. There have also been substantial re-alignment of demographic perceptions, definitions and policies affecting population, including integration. Persistent low fertility is now being addressed directly as a ‘target variable’. Some recovery of birth rates has occurred, notably in France.
Jock Collins : The Changing Political Economy of Australian Immigration, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie. Journal of Economic and Social Geography, 2006, vol. 97, n° 1, pp. 7-16
15Immigration has been a significant and controversial part of Australian history since 1947, but the nature and composition of Australian immigration and the policies and philosophies of immigrant settlement have changed considerably over that time, particularly in the last few decades of globalisation. The aim of this paper is to assess the changing political economy of Australian immigration in two senses. First, the paper presents an overview of the major changes to the dynamics of the Australian immigration experience that have accompanied globalisation. Second, the paper investigates how the political economy of Australian immigration developed in the 1970s differs from a political economy of contemporary Australian immigration. The paper argues that the traditional political economy emphasis on immigration as providing a reserve army of unskilled migrant labour must be replaced by a version of political economy that not only includes labour across all permanent and temporary categories but that also has a stronger focus on immigrant settlement and migrant lives, including debates about national identity. In order to do this, the paper argues, it is important for traditional political economy to draw on new sensibilities and insights about the contemporary immigration experience that emerge from interdisciplinary insights drawn from disciplines outside the traditional political economy foundations.
Katherine J. Curtis White, Kyle Crowder, Stewart E. Tolnay, Robert E. Adelman : Race, Gender, and Marriage: Destination Selection during the Great Migration , Demography, 2005 (May), vol. 42, n° 2, pp. 215-241
16Using historical census microdata, the authors present a unique analysis of racial and gender disparities in destination selection and an exploration of hypotheses regarding tied migration in the historical context of the Great Migration. Black migrants where more likely to move to metropolitan areas and central cities throughout the period, while white migrants were more likely to locate in nonmetropolitan and farm destinations. Gender differences were largely dependent on marital status. Consistent with the “tied-migration” thesis, married women had destination outcomes that were similar to those of men, whereas single women had a greater propensity to reside in metropolitan locations, where economic opportunities for women were more plentiful.
Gordon F. de Jong, Deborah Roempke Graefe, Tanja St. Pierre : Welfare Reform and Interstate Migration of Poor Families, Demography, 2005 (August), vol. 42, n° 3, pp. 469-496
17The thesis of this study is that as a result of increased inequalities in welfare rules, the 1996 welfare reform act not only enhanced incentives for poor families to move but also (and perhaps more important) created disincentives for them to stay in “race to the bottom” states. In testing this thesis, the authors evaluated the mediating and moderating roles of state economic development and family structure. They merged data from three main sources: the 1996-1999 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the Urban Institute’s Welfare Rules Database, and state economic data from the Bureau of Labor Statistitics. Modelling both destination (pull) and departure (push) effects of welfare policy measures and selected covariates in a nested discrete-time event-history migration analysis, they found robust support for the thesis that stringency in state welfare-eligibility and behaviour-related rules stimulated interstate out-migration of poor families in the United States. However, poor families were not drawn to states with relatively more-lenient welfare rules, although stringency in state welfare dollar benefits inhibited in-migration and state unemployment patterns may have conditioned the migration effects of welfare-reform rules on the choice of destination. Single mothers were not more directly affected by welfare-eligibility and behaviour-related rules than were poor married couples.
Paul Demeny : Ethical and Political Constraints on Public Choices in the Field of Fertility, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 331-345
18In first approximation, societies relegate the power to make reproductive decisions to individuals and individual couples. But if the aggregate of micro-level choices come to be seen as inconsistent with the collective interest, a prima facie case emerged for policies that seek to modify micro decisions in the socially optimal direction. This brief essay summarizes the ethical and political problems countries and the international community thought to deal with patterns of aggregate fertility deemed undesirable during the five decades that elapsed since the 1954 Rome population conference. The dominant intent was to reduce fertility so as to moderate rapid population growth seen as retarding economic development. By the end of the 20th century, below-replacement fertility signalled the emergence of new ethical and political dilemmas in population policy.
Ilse Derluyn and Eric Broekart : On the Way to a Better Future: Belgium as Transit Country for Trafficking and Smuggling of Unaccompanied Minors, International Migration, 2005, vol. 43, n° 4, pp. 31-83
19During the last decade, irregular border crossings emerged as a new element in international migratory flows, with smuggling and trafficking networks being an essential part. Many people are compelled to use these networks to realise their dream of a batter living, and for many this “promised land” is the United Kingdom (UK). Belgium has important sea connections with the UK, and is, therefore, an important migration transit zone, although many migrants are intercepted on Belgian territory during their attempt to reach the UK. Some are unaccompanied or separated children and adolescents, minors travelling without parent(s) or a legal caregiver. This study aims to gain insight about this population of unaccompanied minors travelling to the UK. The authors use the situation in Zeebrugge, one of the Belgium’s main ports, as a case study.
20They analysed 1,093 data files of unaccompanied minors intercepted in Zeebrugge, and carried out participatory observation at the shipping police station. The intercepted unaccompanied minors are mainly male, between 15 and 18 years of age, and from an Asian or Eastern European country. Of the 899 unique persons found in the data files, 113 were intercepted several times. After the interception, the Aliens Office gives the majority (82.9%) an identity document without a requirement to leave Belgium, while 15.3 per cent must leave Belgium immediately or within five days. In 82.9 per cent of the cases, a child protection officer is contacted to make a decision about the situation. In 67.2 per cent of these cases, no child protection is taken, and the minor may leave the police station; in 32 per cent of the cases, the minor is transferred to a centre, mostly crisis reception.
21Almost all unaccompanied minors are convinced they want to reach the UK to create a better livelihood, join a family member, or escape a difficult political situation. Nevertheless, most travel in difficult circumstances; are scared; and lack essential information about life in the UK, their possibilities in Belgium what will happen if they are transferred to a centre, and many – although not all - disappear again from the centres.
22This study has several implications concerning the kind of decisions taken by the legal authorities, the necessary physical and psycho-social care and the availability of an interpreter and social worker during the interception, the number of reception places and the care in these centres, and the tasks of the legal guardian. Finally, some limitations of the study are mentioned.
Katharine M. Donato, Michael Aguilera, Chizuko Wakabayashi : Immigration Policy and Employment Conditions of US Immigrants from Mexico, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic, International Migration, 2005, vol. 43, n° 5, pp. 5-29
23Prior studies suggest that the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) in 1986 signalled a deterioration in the labour market conditions of Mexican migrants. In this paper, the authors examine whether and how labour market conditions worsened for Dominicans and Nicaraguans after 1986, and the extent to Which these shifts were comparable to those experienced by Mexicans. Their analysis relies on a new source of data that offers comparable data across the three national origins. The authors estimate multivariate models that capture the effects of demographic attributes, human and social capital, migration-specific human and social capital, legal status, period of trip, national origin, and other controls on the hourly wages earned by household heads and whether they received cash wages on their last US trip. Models with interaction terms reveal significant pre- and post-1986 wage effects, but few differences in these effects between Mexicans and Dominicans or Nicaraguans. In contrast, group differences appear in the risk of cash receipt of wages. Dominicans and Nicaraguans experienced a greater increase in the risk relative to Mexicans pre- and post-1986. Together, these findings depict a broader, negative impact of IRCA on Latino migrant wages than has been documented elsewhere.
Mark Ellis : Unsettling Immigrant Geographies: US Immigration and the Politics of Scale, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie. Journal of Economic and Social Geography, 2006, vol. 97, n° 1, pp. 49-58
24Investigations of immigration politics usually focus on national scale debates and policy initiatives. Immigrant settlement, however, is often highly concentrated in select regions and cities and it is in these places that immigration politics is most contentious. This paper examines these subnational politics of immigration in the United States and explores their relation to national immigration politics. The concentrated geography of immigrants in the United States intersects with a federalised system for dispersing welfare and other social costs of immigration. This creates tension between a central government with the responsibility for controlling admission and state / local governments who pay the social costs of immigrant incorporation. This dynamic of conflict has been exacerbated in recent years by the neoliberal governance strategy of downloading. Geographic concentration has other consequences for the ways in which immigration politics develops, specifically the challenges that visible difference in the landscape poses to national identity. In regard to the latter, the paper echoes Vron Ware by suggesting that an important challenge for diverse immigrant societies is to re-imagine all of the nation’s territory as multiethnic / multicultural, not just the locations where immigrants cluster.
Ewald Engelen : Towards an Explanation of the Performance Differences of Turks in the Netherlands and Germany: The Case for a Comparative Political Economy of Integration, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie. Journal of Economic and Social Geography, 2006, vol. 97, n° 1, pp. 69-79
25The paper argues that migration studies are too parochial, focusing exclusively on ostensible immigration and incorporation policies and failing to take into account the “structuring” effects of the overall institutional framework. The need for more comparative and more economically-oriented research is presented through a reflection upon the recent Dutch debate on the causes of the lagging performance of Turks in the Netherlands compared to those in Germany.
Francois M. Farah : Changing Population Paradigms post ICPD: Policy and Programme Implications, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 141-163
26With unprecedented population growth rates, the theory of demographic transition acquired particular policy significance in the mid 1950s. It would soon become the driving force behind population policy objectives aimed at 3rd world countries, which primarily implemented family planning (FP) programmes. By the mid 1990s three world population conferences would be organized. The 1994 ICPD however, marked a paradigm shift in the population thinking. It redefined population and FP as a means for quality reproductive health, gender equality and human development and not as a demographic end in itself. Predominant development paradigms in the 21st century indicate that population continues to be one of the major determinants of quality human development. For such a quality development to occur, population programmes should be primarily pro-poor and participatory and be human rights and gender-equality based.
Nacira Guénif-Souilamas : En un combat douteux. Concurrence pour la conformation sexuée des Français d’ascendance migrante et coloniale, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2005, vol. 21, n° 2, pp. 91-109
27Le contexte de la France contemporaine, entre mutations de l’État-nation, sortie de l’ère industrielle et réminiscences post-coloniales, constitue un espace inédit d’observation des tensions et concurrences entre groupes majoritaires et minoritaires. Ces tensions et compétitions concernent particulièrement le comportement sexué des Français d’ascendance migrante et coloniale et révèle les conflits de loyauté et de norme qui agitent la société française. Leurs efforts d’individualisation se heurtent à une conception anachronique de la conformité, illustrée par les injonctions paradoxales dont ils font l’objet et qui trouvent dans l’identité sexuée et le comportement sexuel un terrain idéal d’imposition. Les assignations à la différence entre lesquelles ils circulent ignorent la complexité et l’ambiguïté des choix qu’ils affrontent sans garantie de légitimation et contribuent à les déposséder d’eux-mêmes.
Emily Hannum : Market Transition, Educational Disparities, and Family Strategies in Rural China: New Evidence on Gender Stratification and Development, Demography, 2005 (August), vol. 42, n° 2, pp. 275-299
28Two theoretical perspectives have dominated debates about the impact of development on gender stratification: modernization theory, which argues that gender inequalities decline with economic growth, and the “women in development” perspective, which argues that development may initially widen gender gaps. Analyzing cross-sectional surveys and time-series data from China, this article indicates the relevance of both perspectives: while girls’ educational opportunities were clearly more responsive than boy’s to better household economic circumstances, the era of market transition in the late 1970s and early 1980s failed to accelerate and, in fact, may have temporarily slowed progress toward gender equity.
Alec G. Hargreaves : Ethnic Categorizations in Literature, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2005, vol. 21, n° 2, pp. 19-33
29Les chercheurs anglophones se sont montrés plus prêts que leurs homologues français à reconnaître ouvertement les dimensions ethniques et politiques des littératures issues des flux migratoires internationaux. Sur le plan des concepts de base, ce contraste se manifeste dans l’importance accordée aux États-Unis et en Grande-Bretagne aux notions de « post-colonialisme » et du « multiculturalisme », termes qui sont généralement récusés en France, où l’idée de la « francophonie » marque une approche théorique très différente à des phénomènes littéraires similaires. Plus concrètement, cette disjonction se traduit aux États-Unis dans l’importance croissante de catégories littéraires telles qu « Afro-Américains » ou « Latinos », alors qu’en France les littératures dites « Beur » ou « de banlieue » sont marginalisées.
Daniel Hiebert : Winning, Losing, and Still Playing the Game: The Political Economy of Immigration in Canada, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie. Journal of Economic and Social Geography, 2006, vol. 97, n° 1, pp. 38-48
30In contrast to most other countries, public opinion in Canada is relatively positive towards immigration and immigrants. Yet the economic fortunes of immigrants, especially those who have arrived recently, have been falling over the past three decades. Four analytical perspectives on the relatively poor economic performance of immigrants in Canada are discussed, and are used to build a composite understanding of this economic outcome. The author argues that the weak economic position of immigrants – particularly the fact that they do not compete against the Canadian-born in privileged segments of the labour market – is an important ingredient in the favourable public view of immigration.
31Although Australia is best known as a country of immigration, around 1 million Australians currently live outside of their homeland on a permanent or long-term basis The present paper uses a number of quantitative and qualitative data sources to assess the extent to which Australia’s expatriate community fulfils the four defining criteria of contemporary diasporas advanced by Butler (2001). These criteria include involving a scattering of two or more destinations, a relationship with an actual or imagined homeland, common group identity shared among diaspora communities, and existence over at least two generations. It finds that the Australian expatriate community qualifies on the basis of at least three of those criteria. The article then examines some dimensions of the relationship between the Australian diaspora with their homeland. It is argued that Australia’ diaspora constitute a meaningful and distinctive group and represents an important subject of serious study. Indeed it is a significant but neglected part of Australia’s demography and population geographies. This was reflected in the Australian Senate setting up an Inquiry into the Australian expatriate community in 2003.
L.S. Hurt, C. Ronsmans, S.L. Thomas : The Effect of Number of Births on Women’s Mortality: Systematic Reviewof the Evidence for Women who have Completed their Childbearing, Population Studies, 2006, vol. 60, n° 1, pp. 55-71
32Mortality in women who have completed their childbearing may increase with the number of births experienced because of maternal depletion or a trade-off between reproduction and mortality. The authors report a systematic review of the evidence on this association. They searched Medline, Embase, Popline, and the Science Citation Index for published and unpublished studies up to September 2003, and the book catalogues of relevant London libraries. Where necessary they also contacted authors for additional information. Mortality declined with increasing numbers of births in twelve historical cohorts, but in eight contemporary cohorts the highest mortality was seen in the nulliparous and in women with more than four births. All effects seen were small and there were few statistically significant results. Studies examining the relationship in other ways (such as by linear trends or by mean number of births by age at death) found inconsistent associations. The authors discuss methodological, social, and biological factors that may have affected these associations.
Maggie Ibrahim : The Securization of Migration: A Racial Discourse, International Migration, 2005, vol. 43, n° 5, pp. 163-187
33As we enter the informational economy, freedom of human mobility has nearly disappeared. Instead, powerful words are travelling the globe unhindered: risk and security. They are being strung together with the present “migration phenomena”, leaving migrants bound by the chain of the new security discourse: the securization of migration. This discourse is racism’s most modern form. Discursive practices, as seen through the press’s portrayal of 599 migrants reaching Canada’s western coast, have transformed migrants into agents which threaten “human security”. How discourse informs government policy is illustrated through an examination of Canada’s new immigration legislation.
Nabil Khattab : Ethnic and Regional Determinants of Unemployment in the Israeli Labour Market: A Multilevel Model, Regional Studies, 2006 (February, vol. 40, n° 1, pp. 93-105
34Previous studies have revealed mixed results regarding the influence of the local labour market on ethnic differences in unemployment. Using data from the 1995 Israeli census, this study aimed to examine the relative influence of individual and spatial factors in determining the risk of unemployment among men aged 20-64 in Israel. Five ethnic groups are compared: Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Muslims, Christians and Druze. The data used consist of two levels: 1. worker level with information on education, ethnicity, class, marital status and age; and 2. locally level with information on employment opportunities and new immigrants. The data were analysed using a multilevel analysis technique (HLM – Bernoulli model). The evidence from the 1995 population census indicates that the risk of unemployment is a product of individual and contextual influences. Individual characteristics (ethnicity and class) and place of residence appear to determine the chances of employment. The enclave effect and the relationship between ethnicity and class are also discussed.
Emma Lundholm, Gunnar Malmberg : Gains and Losses, Outcomes of Interregional Migration in the Five Nordic Countries, Geografiska Annaler, series B Human Geography, 2006, vol. 88B, n° 1, pp. 35-48
35This paper examines the outcome of interregional migration in various aspects from the migrants’ perspective. It is based on a survey, including 6000 interregional migrants in the five Nordic countries. The results indicate that interregional migration leads to a positive outcome for most migrants and few people seem to be forced to make decisions including painful trade-offs. Motives have an effect on what aspects of outcome migrants are satisfied with. The influence of individual migrants’ characteristics on migration outcome revealed few significant effects. Migrants claimed to be most satisfied with living conditions turned out to be crucially important for the general outcome of migration.
Pilar Martín-Guzmán : Population and Poverty, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 167-184
36The statistic and econometric methods developed along last century have introduced a new perspective in the debate on the relation between population and poverty. But as there is not a unique approach to the concept and measurement of poverty, most of the existing cross-country macroeconomic studies are based on economic development as a proxy for poverty reduction. This paper reviews some of the connections between demographic patterns and poverty and development issues that have been empirically tested and published. The incidence of poverty in fertility patterns and mortality rates, the evidence of the demographic dividend arising from demographic transitions and the two-folded impact of migration on economic growth are commented.
George Martine : Population / Development / Environment Trends in a Globalized Context: Challenges for the 21st Century, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 247-277
37Within the context of globalized development, spatial issues are paramount in environmental outcomes. Specifically, the inevitable and unprecedented growth of towns and cities will have enormous environmental implications, especially in Asia and Africa. Their environmental role is multiplied by their centrality in the current development framework. Despite current disadvantages, urban concentration could turn out to be a critical ally of sustainability. This would require a proactive and interventionist approach in order to reduce the negative impacts of urban growth and to maximize its potential advantages. Where cities are located, how and where they grow, how they deal with various environmental challenges as well as with the needs of the poor, are all decisive issues for the PDE equation.
M. Giovanna Merli, Sara Hertog, Bo Wang and Jing Li : Modelling the Spread of HIV/AIDS in China : The Role of Sexual Transmission, Population Studies, 2006, vol. 60, n° 1, pp. 1-22
38The study presented here is an exploration of the implications of patterns of sexual behaviour for the spread of HIV in China, using a bio-behavioural macrosimulation model. To reflect the uncertainty surrounding key parameters, analyses of various scenarios are used to show a range of possible outcomes consistent with variations in selected biological and behavioural inputs. The latter are estimated from a nationwide survey of sexual behaviour recently conducted in China, a country with an emerging HIV/AIDS epidemic, where it is fear that HIV/AIDS will spread to the general population via heterosexual transmission. The results highlight the primacy of the levels and distribution of sexual activity in the population. They offer some guidelines for understanding and interpreting the potential implications of current and prospective changes in sexual behaviour for the spread of HIV/AIDS in the world’s largest population, and also highlight the need to collect better data on sexual behaviour for the estimation of key model inputs.
Dominique Mignot, Diana Rebecca Villareal Gonzalez : Métropolisation, concentration et ségrégation dans les villes européennes et américaines : une comparaison Costa-Rica, France et Mexique, Revue d’Économie régionale et urbaine, 2005, n° 5, pp. 679-698
39L’hypothèse centrale qui sous-tend cette recherche est celle d’une permanence des tendances lourdes à la métropolisation et à la ségrégation des populations et des activités, notamment par l’émergence de polarités périphériques situées sur les axes principaux de transport. Les différents travaux effectués sur le Costa Rica, la France et le Mexique ont conduit de fait l’auteur à insister beaucoup plus sur la dimension de la ségrégation dans les évolutions à l’œuvre. Pour caractériser la métropolisation, il est nécessaire d’évoquer un triple phénomène de concentration, d’étalement urbain et de ségrégation.
Barry Mirkin : Evolution of National Population Policies since the United Nations 1954 World Population Conference, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 297-328
40The paper tracks the evolution of Government’s views and policies on population and development since the convening of the 1954 World Population Conference in Rome, illustrating, among other things, the role of the international conferences in facilitating national government entrance into embracing population policies and how issues of concern to governments evolved during the 50 years since Rome. Through the convening of international and inter-governmental conferences, and the wide dissemination of research on demographic trends, population projections and evolution of national population policies, the United Nations provided a forum for international cooperation on population and development matters. It also created a climate that permitted governments to view population and development as a legitimate area of national and international action.
Mark R. Montgomery, Paul C. Hewett : Urban Poverty and Health in Developing Countries: Household and Neighbourhood Effects, Demography, 2005 (August), vol. 42, n° 3, pp. 397-425
41In the United States and other high-income countries, there is intense scholarly and programmatic interest in the effects of household and neighbourhood living standards on health. Yet few studies of developing-country cities have explored these issues. The authors investigated whether the health of urban women and children in poor countries is influenced by both household and neighbourhood standards of living. Using data from the urban samples of 85 Demographic and Health Surveys and modelling living standards using factor-analytic MIMIC methods, they found that the neighbourhoods of relatively poor households are more heterogeneous than is often asserted. Their results indicated that poor urban households do not tend to live in uniformly poor neighbourhoods: about 1 in 10 of a poor household’s neighbours is relatively affluent, belonging to the upper quartile of the urban distribution of living standards. Do household and neighbourhood living standards influence health? Using multivariate models, they found that household living standards are closely associated with three health measures: unmet need for modern contraception, attendance of a trained health care provider at childbirth, and young children’s height for age. Neighbourhood living standards exert a significant additional influence in many of the surveys the authors examined, especially for birth attendance.
Ann Morning : Multiracial Classification on the United States Census: Myth, Reality, and Future Impact, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2005, vol. 21, n° 2, pp. 111-134
42En 1997, les directives fédérales des États-Unis sur la classification raciale furent amendées afin de permettre aux répondants individuels de s’identifier comme membres de plus d’une « race » (dans le sens anglo-saxon du terme, qui n’a aucune connotation biologique ou racialiste). Beaucoup considéraient que cette mesure, prise sous la pression de la communauté des personnes et organisation se revendiquant de « race mixte », allait avoir d’importantes conséquences. Dans cet article, l’auteur examine les prévisions quant à l’impact de la classification multiraciale et évalue leur pertinence au regard des résultats obtenus. Elle conclut que ni les espoirs, ni les craintes associés à la reconnaissance multiraciale ne se sont concrétisés. Au lieu de cela, l’apport le plus important de la reconnaissance du caractère multiracial de l’Amérique sera probablement sa contribution au débat relatif à la classification d’un segment beaucoup plus large de la population : les Hispaniques.
Danielle Nierenberg : The Challenge of Uncertainty: The Unexpected Occurrence, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 91-109
43Population growth has never been an easily predictable trend. It may be periodically affected by uncertainties. This paper reviews some of the main contemporary cases of unexpected changes in demographics, fostered by economic instabilities, political reforms and crises, and infectious diseases. It also examines some of the main global wildcards that demographers, policy makers, governments, and NGOs are likely to face in the next future, namely the issues of aging populations, growing youth bulges in many countries, the spread of global infectious diseases, increasing urbanization and rising consumption. More intensive and effective international cooperation together with greater international aids to developing countries are seen as some of the feasible strategies to cope with this prospective challenges.
Naohiro Ogawa : Population Aging and Policy Options for a Sustainable Future: The Case of Japan, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 369-410
44This paper discusses a variety of policy options for coping with rapid population aging and their impact on various socio-economic dimensions in 21st century Japan. As one of the principal policy options, the Japanese government has been allocating a considerable amount of resources for pro-natalist purposes since the early 1990s. To date, however, the Japanese government has not yet been able to reverse the downward fertility trend. Among other policy options discussed in this paper, the following two policy options appear promising: (1) the extension of retired age and (2) the utilization of the accumulated wealth owned by the elderly.
Jacqueline Oxman-Martinez, Jill Hanley, Fanny Gomez : Canadian Policy on Human Trafficking: A Four-Year Analysis, International Migration, 2005, vol. 43, n° 4, pp. 7-29
45This article introduces readers to Canadian Government Policy and practice surrounding human trafficking since the adoption of the United Nations (UN) Protocol on Trafficking in 2000. After offering an overview of the UN Protocol, the article reviews and critically analyses Canada’s efforts in the three key areas of the Protocol: prevention of human trafficking, protection of trafficking victims, and the prosecution of traffickers. Since the beginning of this research, progress has been made in Canadian policy responses. The Government began by developing and implementing its tools for the prosecution of traffickers, thereby responding to most of the prosecution recommendations of the UN Protocol. Different government agencies are also coordinating their efforts to implement prevention projects, both in source countries and at home, including awareness-raising campaigns, education campaigns, and policy development collaborations. However, the more structural elements of prevention have yet to be adequately addressed. Finally, without shifting their basing border control framework, Canadian government agencies are in the process of improving the protection of trafficking victims who are intercepted in law enforcement operations or who come forward for help. These protection measures would be strengthened further if migrants’ rights were explicitly protected by law, something that has failed to occur given recent prioritisation of crime and security. The formal protection of victims, as implemented to some degree in several European or American policies, is introduced for comparison. The article concludes with the remaining challenges that face Canadian policy makers, particularly in terms of shifting away from current focus on crime and security to the protection and promotion of the human rights of trafficking victims.
Ferruccio Pastore : The Policies for the Management of International Migrations from the XX to the XXI Century. A Tale of Territorial Sovereignties and People on the Move, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 347-367
46Managing human mobility has always been an issue for policy-makers. However, it is only during the last century that migration policy emerged as a relatively structured policy field in Western Nation States. And it is only since a few decades that international migration has become a major political concern and a matter of high politics, both at national and at international level. This article analyses the evolution of migration policies on a long term basis, by focusing on three distinct although connected trends: the historical emergence and contemporary crisis of human rights as limits to sovereignty on human mobility; the trend towards regionalisation of migration management, with a particular focus on Europe; the ongoing global debate on the opportunity to set up a normative and institutional framework for the governance of international migration.
Dominique Potvin : Les jeunes adultes migrants de retour : une vitalité pour les régions, Revue d’Économie Régionale et Urbaine, 2005, n° 4, pp. 507-531
47Dynamisme, créativité, implication, voici plusieurs qualités qui sont régulièrement mises en avant par les organisations vouées au développement. Des jeunes migrants semblent détenir plusieurs de ces qualités, particulièrement ceux qui reviennent dans leur pays d’origine. Ces qualités sont ressorties en comparant les migrants de retour avec les individus qui ne sont jamais partis de leur région. Cette comparaison s’est faite sur la base des projets qu’ils ont réalisés, de leur implication dans leur milieu et de leur intérêt face à leur environnement de vie. La recherche réalisée au Québec montre que les migrants de retour, dans les régions les plus éloignées des grands centres urbains, se sont révélés des acteurs importants dans leur milieu de vie et, de ce fait même, peuvent contribuer au développement de leur collectivité et de leur région.
France Prioux : L’évolution démographique récente en France, Population, 2005 (juillet-août), vol. 60, n° 4, pp. 443-488
48L’année 2004, marquée par une forte baisse du nombre des décès et un léger relèvement des naissances, a enregistré un accroissement naturel relativement élevé. La France demeure l’un des rares pays d’Europe dont la population augmente principalement grâce au mouvement naturel. L’immigration a continué à augmenter en 2003, mais à un rythme un peu plus faible qu’en 2002.
49L’indicateur conjoncturel de fécondité augment légèrement et s’élève à 1,9 enfant par femme en 2004. Néanmoins, la descendance finale diminue rapidement après la génération 1960, et pourrait tomber en dessous de 2 enfants par femme dès la génération 1970. La fréquence des interruptions volontaires de grossesse (IVG) est globalement stable.
50Alors que le nombre de Pacs signés continue à augmenter, celui des mariages diminue progressivement depuis 2000. La proportion d’hommes et de femmes non célibataires à 50 ans diminue au fil des générations tandis que l’âge moyen au premier mariage se relève. La fréquence des ruptures d’union a beaucoup augmenté. L’évolution des comportements conjugaux conduit de plus en plus d’hommes et de femmes adultes à vivre seuls dans leur logement.
51La progression de l’espérance de vie à la naissance a été exceptionnelle en 2004 (+ 0,9 ans pour les femmes et + 0,8 pour les hommes), et cela ne peut s’expliquer uniquement par le contrecoup de la mortalité exceptionnelle de l’année 2003 provoquée par la vague de chaleur du mois d’août (« effet moisson »), ni par l’absence d’épidémie de grippe en 2004. C’est surtout la baisse de la mortalité aux grands âges qui contribue à l’allongement de la durée de vie moyenne, en particulier pour les femmes.
Jean-Marie Robine, Graziella Caselli, Domenica Rasulo, Amandine Cournil : Differentials in the Femininity Ratio Among Centenarians: Variations Between northern and southern Italy from 1870, Population Studies, 2006, vol. 60, n° 1, pp. 99-113
52Significant differentials have been observed between Italian regions in the distribution of centenarians by sex, from two women per man in the south to over eight in certain regions in the north. In order to explain these differentials, the authors studied the evolution of the femininity ratio (FR), using a longitudinal approach to follow the ageing process in two cohorts, and making use of nearly all the statistical data available since the time of the Unification of Italy in 1870. Significant differentials in the FR observed at the age of 100 are mainly due to mortality differentials among men over the age of 60. The high mortality of men in the north and their low mortality in the south are the main explanations of why the FRs are higher in the north and lower in the south. Mortality differentials among women have only a marginal impact.
Robert F. Schoeni, Jersey Liang, Joan Bennett, Hidehiro Sugisawa, Taro Fukaya, Erika Kobayashi : Trends in Old-Age Functioning and Disability in Japan, 1993-2002, Population Studies, 2006, vol. 60, n°1, pp. 39-53
53Disability is a burden to individuals and society. Population ageing, combined with the fact that disability is most common among the elderly, has focused attention on trends in old-age disability. This study estimates trends in functioning and disability among Japanese elderly from 1993 to 2002 and contrasts the patterns with those found in the USA. Japan is an especially interesting country because its age structure is relatively old, and it currently has the highest life expectancy in the world despite the fact that just 50 years ago its life expectancy was in the bottom half of all countries. As in the USA, disability rates have fallen. If it were not for the gains in disability between 1993 and 2002, there would have been 1.1 million more disabled elderly in 2002. The reductions were experienced broadly across socio-demographic and economic groups. Increases in education across cohorts are associated with the declines in disability.
Ronald C. Schoenmaeckers : How Increased Labour Force and Increased Productivity May Compensate for the Negative Socio-Economic Effects of an Older Population Composition. Results From a Simulation Exercise on European Data, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 465-493
54European populations are increasingly getting older. These changes in the age composition will have serious socio-economic consequences. The central issue of this study is to investigate whether the negative effects of older population structures on the economic output may be compensated by higher GDP-levels through increased employment and labour productivity. Simulation results show that the answer is ‘Yes’. With employment levels corresponding to the ‘Scandinavian model’ and assuming a moderate increase of productivity the growth of GDP per capita should far exceed the prospected increases in the proportions of people aged 65 and more. At the same time, however, the results indicate the economic divide between the more wealthy countries in the West and the transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
Emily Skop, Brian Gratton, Myron P. Guttman : La Frontera and Beyond: Geography and Demography in Mexican American History, The Professional Geographer, 2006 (February), vol. 58, n° 1, pp. 78-98
55The recent publication of an expansive national dataset, the Integrated Public Use Microdata Sample, allows for new analyses of the historical geography and settlement of various immigrant and ethnic groups in the United States. The present research explores the growth, development, and geographic dispersion of the ethnic Mexican population, and outlines some of the demographic and social characteristics within significant clusters of this population in the United States across the first half of the twentieth century. The analysis does not attempt to overturn other geographies and ethnographies in Mexican American history, but through its ability to elucidate broad, national patterns it is able to create a more dynamic view of settlement, demonstrating the role of immigrants and of women immigrants in particular. Results indicate that place matters: the geographical context of arrival and settlement were key factors in differentiating communities and the lives of those who lived in them.
Scott J. South, Kyle Crowder, Erick Chavez : Migration and Spatial Assimilation among US Latinos: Classical versus Segmented Trajectories, Demography, 2005 (August), vol. 42, n° 3, pp. 497-521
56The authors merged data from the Latino National Political Survey, The Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and the US census to examine patterns and determinants of inter-neighbourhood residential mobility between 1990 and 1995 for 3,074 US residents of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban ethnicity. In several respects, their findings confirm the central tenets of spatial assimilation theory: Latino residential mobility into neighbourhoods that are inhabited by grater percentages of non-Hispanic whites (i.e., Anglos) increases with human and financial capital and English-language use. However, these results also point to variations in the residential mobility process among Latinos that are broadly consistent with the segmented assimilation perspective on ethnic and immigrant incorporation. Net of controls, Puerto Ricans are less likely than Mexicans to move to neighbourhoods with relatively large Anglo populations, and the generational and socio-economic differences that are anticipated by the classical assimilation model emerge more strongly for Mexicans than for Puerto Ricans or Cubans. Among Puerto Ricans and Cubans, darker skin colour inhibits mobility into Anglo neighbourhoods.
Paul Spoonley : A Contemporary Political Economy of Labour Migration in New Zealand, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie. Journal of Economic and Social Geography, 2006, vol. 97, n° 1, pp. 17-25
57A political economy of labour migration approach was initially developed to provide an explanation of the arrival of Pacific migrant workers in New Zealand in the 1960s and 1970s. The second period of non-European migration (post 1986) has occurred in a significantly different political and economic context. However, research, political debate and policy has remained focus on the nature of supply. This paper identifies some of the key silences in contemporary understanding, especially in relation to labour market outcomes for immigrants, and the need to develop an appropriate political economy of current labour migration.
John B. Strait : An Epidemiology of Neighborhood Poverty: Causal Factors of Infant Mortality Among Blacks and Whites in the Metropolitan United States, The Professional Geographer, 2006 (February), vol. 58, n° 1, pp. 39-53
58Despite overall declines in infant mortality over the past few decades, racial disparities between blacks and whites have persisted in the United States. This article considers the argument that racial differences in infant mortality are partially the result of the disproportionate concentration of blacks within extremely poor neighborhoods relative to whites. Using race specific measures of neighborhood-level poverty, combined with metropolitan-wide measures of infant mortality, it was determined that trends in infant mortality for both blacks and whites reflect the impact of an intergenerational effect associated with prolonged exposure to extremely poor neighborhoods. Racial disparities in infant mortality in the early 1980s can be accounted for by black-white differences in neighborhood poverty exposure. Results suggest, however, that black infant mortality during the early 1990s was much more strongly influenced by high-risk natality behaviors among black women than by economic status or neighborhood influences.
Rachel Sullivan : The Age Pattern of First-Birth Rates Among US Women: The Bimodal 1990s, Demography, 2005 (August), vol. 42, n° 2, pp. 259-273
59Between 1990 and 2002, the age pattern of Type I first-birth rates (i.e. the hazard of a first birth) among US women was bimodal. This pattern, driven by changing differential fertility patterns among racial and ethnic groups, reached its apex at the mid-1990s and had almost vanished by the decade’s end. Research on first-birth timing has tended to focus on Type II first-birth rates and therefore has failed to identify this larger, bimodal pattern. This article presents the benefits of using Type I rates, documents the emergence of the bimodal pattern via two new measures of bimodality, and uses a decomposition analysis to discuss the pattern’s causes.
Michael S. Teitelbaum : Intra- and Inter-National Imbalances and Migration, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 193-212
60While there are many similarities between the historical East-West migration wave and the current South-North wave, there are also profound differences. These mass migrations have attracted much theoretical attention from social scientists, yet to date no coherent and convincing theory has been elaborated. Most social science theories emphasize the undoubted impacts of imbalances between source and destination countries. Yet there has been surprisingly little attention to the likely important roles played by states in initiating, restraining, and managing international migration. Many destination countries are experiencing a convergence of high rates of immigration with very low rates of fertility, which if sustained would result in very rapid demographic transformations. Given the roles played by states, efforts to forecast future international migration trends require abilities that not one as: to predict the nature and intensity of future political responses to such rapid changes.
Paul Thomson, Elaine Bauer : Sources of Aid and Resilience and Points of Pain in Jamaican Migrant Families, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2005, vol. 21, n° 3, pp. 9-26
61This article is based on the evidence of life story interviews with members of 45 families who have kin in Jamaica, Britain and North America. It argues that the transnational Jamaican form of family is based on a complex but informal and pragmatic type of family structure which has characterised Jamaican kinship since emancipation from slavery. It has long been common for children to be raised by grandparents or other kin, whether because of parental repartnering or through separations due to migration. The article shows how this shifts the typical focus of psychological loss in migration, and enables effective aid to be sustained through the transnational kin network in childrearing, care for the old, and migration itself. It seems, however, that this support is least effective for young men in contrast to young women. Finally, the authors argue that these Jamaican transnational families, because of their long experience with handling transitions from repartnering, the strong role which they give to women, their interracialism and transnationalism, are a progressive modern form of family of wide relevance to family researchers everywhere.
Jacques Vallin : Diseases, Deaths, and Life Expectancy, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 279-296
62From the mid-18th century, modern nations started developing new conditions resulting in a considerable decline of diseases and decrease in mortality. Yet, the Japanese enjoy an 82-year mean duration of life before dying just of old age, while AIDS kills millions of young African adults. How can we explain why, contrary to the Abdel Omran’s theory of epidemiologic transition, such radical progress observed among many populations did not led to an overall push in the same direction for all populations, and continues to result in such diversity? Does the Mirko Grmek’s concept of pathocenosis, can help to answer the question? In the far past, major epidemiologic changes resulted in developing new pathocenoses. In the same way, modern health transitions consist in successice phases of divergence-convergence but unless progress stops for long convergence is never completed before new factors of divergence appear. Thus, health inequalities around the world are probably higher now than ever.
Marijke Verpoorten : Le coût en vies humaines du génocide rwandais : le cas de la province de Gikongoro, Population, 2005 (juillet-août), vol. 60, n° 4, pp. 401-440
63Le coût en vies humaines du génocide rwandais reste une question très controversée. L’estimation souvent avancée de 500 000 Tutsis assassinés est fondée sur le recensement de 1991. Mais deux questions non résolues mettent en doute ce chiffre. D’abord, combien y avait-il de Tutsis au Rwanda avant le génocide ? Ensuite, combien ont survécu ? En ce qui concerne la première question, certains observateurs avancent que le recensement de 1991 sous-estime la proportion des Tutsis dans la population. En comparant les chiffres du recensement avec les données démographiques de l’administration locale de la préfecture de Gikongoro, l’auteur apporte des preuves à l’appui de cette thèse et examine la manière dont la sous-estimation peut biaiser l’évaluation du nombre des victimes du génocide. Les statistiques démographiques de 117 secteurs administratifs de la préfecture de Gikongoro permettent en outre une analyse approfondie de la distribution spatiale des massacres dans cette zone. Elle a calculé que les Tutsis de Gikongoro avaient en moyenne une chance sur quatre de survivre au génocide, la probabilité de survie des femmes n’étant que légèrement supérieure à celle des hommes (29% contre 21%). Les chances de survie des Tutsis tiennent plus à la localisation des grands massacres et à la manière dont la violence s’est répandue dans les divers secteurs administratifs qu’aux éventuelles interventions des autorités locales pour empêcher le génocide.
Marecela Villareal, Libor Stloukal : Population, Development and Food Security: An Unresolved Challenge for the Twenty-First Century, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 215-246
64The article examines trends in food production and nutrition since the Rome Conference, and relates them to population growth and other demographic factors. It demonstrates that in spite of unprecedented levels of population growth, a faster overall rate of agriculture production led to an excess per capita agricultural production that should theoretically allow every person to have enough food. In some regions, however, gains in agricultural production and in GDP were lower than population growth. Hunger persists at national, sub-national and household levels because an important proportion of the world’s population continues to have incomes insufficient to satisfy their nutritional needs. Food insecurity thus reflects an imbalance in the population-development equation, with population growth and other demographic factors weighing heavily.
Jamie Winders : Changing Politics of Race and Region: Latino Migration to the US South, Progress in Human Geography, 2005, vol. 29, n° 6, pp. 683-699
65Questions and practices of race in the US South have historically been unthinkable outside the register of a black-white binary. In recent years, this connection between the South as a region and race as a dualism has been challenged by Latino migration to southern cities and towns. This article reviews the emerging literature on this southern arm of Latino migration, arguing for more attention to its interactions with racial formations and practices in southern communities and the geographic and place contingence of its features across the region. To achieve more critical understandings of these processes, it suggests, future studies must contextualize this migration in relation to studies of both immigrant gateway cities across the USA and the historical geographies of race and ethnicity in southern cities.
Hania Zlotnik : Population Trends since 1954, Genus, 2005 (July-December), vol. LXI, n° 3-4, pp. 111-139
66This paper reviews actual population trends since 1954 in light of demographic transition theory and in comparison with trends expected in the 1950s and 1960s. It shows that population projections made in the 1950s failed to foresee the success that modern preventive medicine, improved sanitation and nutrition would have in reducing mortality in developing countries, thus underestimating the growth of their populations. More recently, the emergence of HIV and of very low fertility regimes are both outcomes not predicted by the demographic transition, making it more likely that projections of future growth may be turn out to be inaccurate. In particular, if HIV continues to spread and its prevalence continues to rise, population growth may end up being lower than expected today.
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